Nagasaki, on the south coast of Kyushu, was an early centre of trade with the Portuguese during the 16th Century. As a result of this, it has a large Christian population. Banned under the policy of Sakoku, Catholicism was forced underground during the 17th Century. The Tokugawa Shogunate of the day even went so far as to deport the children of Japanese-European liaisons. Trade is key to the wealth of the province, and smuggling is also commonplace.